206 SKELETON MODULE - under construction (where have I seen that before!)
From actual bodies almost all the ideas of anatomical theory developed, but to understand this theory
it is easier to use lists and labelled diagrammatic PowerPoint images (in 206), which present a
simplified view and one that ignores anatomical variation
from one person to another. The purpose of the anatomy lab is for you to find out what
bodies are really like to the extent that we can do this once they are dead.
In the lab, within your working group of three or four, someone needs to
have brought a copy of Guy's Anatomy book, a list of the structures to be learned for
the test, & whatever of this can usefully be printed out and brought with you. Although, the
idea is to have most of this in your head when you come in. However, printing out the Figs
in black and white of course loses the color used extensively to distinguish things. You can,
later, go over the labels and leaders and restore them with colored highlighters.
For using this material at the computer, some may work from the screen just clicking
the links, others may want a printed version to read along with going off for the images.
It is important that you also learn the Skeleton from Julia Guy's Computer-based Anatomy Program,
among other reasons because her images are used for part of all our lab exams. You have access to
her Anatomy Lab Program on the HSC server reached from the SBLC computers (Room 4005), and
on the CD that is sold separately from her Atlas in the Bookstore. Not everyone
needs to buy the CD - make your own sharing arrangements. You will also have to download a recent
version of QuickTime to play the demonstrations (animations). However, if you cannot play these,
try clicking on 'Demonstration' again, then 'Continue' to keep moving.
- Anatomy is represented by the skeleton more than by other structures for various reasons, including: (i) it and the teeth are the parts of you that survive longest after death;
(ii) it has hard outlines and is easy to depict; (iii) it gives everyone a distinctive shape
(hence some skull-like political cartoons); and (iv) most
importantly it provides reference points by feel or imaging for where soft structures
should be if all is normal,e.g., the liver tucked under the right rib-cage as seen
in the cover picture on Guy's Atlas. (Note that the relationship works the other way
around, and the nipples give an idea of where the fourth intercostal space lies.
- We are starting the lab with the skeleton because: (i) it is good way to introduce you to how anatomical terms are used;
(ii) the Figures in the PowerPoints and Guy's atlas are easily related to the actual bones in the bone boxes and in the skeletons;
(iii) the material is not messy; (iv) and you then have the basis for soon positioning organs, e.g., the heart and vertebral arteries,
within skeletal structures.
- Guy's atlas is useful, and at about the level that we need. However, like almost all textbooks we will still select
from it and change the order. Our selection will be to downplay the very many muscles
that position, stabilize and move the bones (Fig 1-5, p. 6).
- We start with Axial Skeleton Lesson 14, pp. 94-101, then go on to Appendicular Skeleton (Guy Lesson 16, pp.104-110 and
and Guy Lesson 3, pp.17-25). Note the omissions - Skull (to be looked at a little later as
the context for the brain and special sense organs), and Arthrology, the classification of joints.
- Nevertheless, you need to know the individual bones joined up in their working context in the skeleton,
and how the joints are named rather than classified.
- This module introduces you to using other websites on the Internet. They will be used far more in the soft-organ modules.
There is a correct way to use other people's free web teaching material, namely
not just create anonymous links to certain images, but to get you to
the author's original context, then to list the useful images. This is what we'll try here with
a U Michigan site showing you views of actual bones, not just drawings. Once there, you'll
find a list of vertebrae mixed up with a few MRIs (ignore),followed by some soft structures of the back (ignore these for now).
To test yourself, work down the images while covering the key on the righthand side with a piece of paper. Ignore any terms in those lists that are not in used by Guy.
. Remember - you are in a website, so use BACK, not the exit (X) . .
which will whisk you right out of this module. .
U Michigan Gross Anatomy Images
- Get clear in your mind the views and lists of structures that you need to know for the Theory 205 exam and
the shorter list of those structures to be recognized for the 206 Lab exam, e.g. for Axial Skeleton,
remembering that you have to have the latter names in your mind to write down on the answer sheet.
Saying them to yourself repeatedly helps with the spelling.
Lab Assignments from the Guy Workbook
Lesson 14 - Axial Skeleton - Do all bolded structures
- For the Appendicular skeleton, we have eliminated some of the structures identified in Guy. So below you'll find exceptions for one part,
and a listing those to be known for the lower limb, so
Lesson 16 – Bones of the Upper Limb - All bolded structures with these EXCEPTIONS:
Figure 16-2 . . Omit angles and borders
Figure 16-6 . . Omit the names of the carpals
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Lesson 3 - Bones of lower limb
Ileum - -
Ischium - -
Pubis - -
Greater sciatic notch - -
Ischial spine - -
Ischial tuberosity - -
Acetabulum - -
Obturator foramen - -
Sacroiliac joint - -
Pelvic brim - -
Iliac crest - -
Ischial spine - -
Symphysis pubis - -
Head - -
Neck - -
Greater trochanter - -
Lesser trochanter - -
Patellar surface - -
Medial epicondyle and condyle - -
Lateral epicondyle and condyle - -
Lateral condyle - -
Medial condyle - -
Heal of fibula - -
Tibial tuberosity - -
Medial malleolus - -
Lateral malleolus - -
Tarsals - Talus, Calcaneus - -
Metatarsals - -
Phalanges - -
Once you have a good idea of these appendicular bones and their parts, test yourself
at the interactive website where you can click on a number and see if your idea of the leader target matches the correct name at the upper left . .
Dr Thackery Grays' Interactive Bone Box .
Once again, ignore Labels on the images that you need not learn
- Another test is to use the website below to identify bones and their parts on x-rays.
This is an important exercise, since here the bones are fastened together in their working positions.
For each part of the body, you have the choice of labelled and unlabelled views . .
Dr Michael Richardson's Radiological Anatomy
From their shapes, positions and peculiarities, the bones permit particular movements round joints.
Guy's Prgram has brief video clips illustrating certain movements. A few of these you will need to know
as part of the 206 theory about Muscles and their actions. Also, to be known for Theory is the
MICROSCOPICAL STRUCTURE of bone and cartilage, and some of its clinical implications.
Guide to Guy's Anatomy Lab on SBLC Computers
1 If the computer asks for a User ID, type in the computer's own number, e.g., SBCL09.
Leave 'Password' blank and hit enter.
2 Choose (double-click) the icon 'Shortcut to HSC SBLC SOFTWARE'
3 From the many icons, choose 'Anatomy Lab'
4 Choose 'The Upper Limb'
5 Choose 'Axial Skeleton and Muscle'
6 Wait until the program starts, then, in the query box, type
a single letter, number, or punctuation mark, and hit ENTER to proceed
7 From now on, whenever a question is posed, anything typed in the box, followed by ENTER lets you progress
8 To get out, use 'Back to Menu, 'Yes', followed by as many 'Quits' and 'Close' as it takes.
9 When you return just to Guy's main menu, you can find the Appendicular Skeleton in the Upper and Lower Limb boxes.